Fundamental Rights

The Constitution offers all citizens, individually and collectively, some basic freedoms. These are guaranteed in the Constitution in the form of six broad categories of Fundamental Rights, which are justifiable. Article 12 to 35 contained in Part III of the Constitution deal with Fundamental Rights. These are:
  • Right to equality, including equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, and equality of opportunity in matters of employment.
  • Right to freedom of speech and expression, assembly, association or union, movement, residence, and right to practice any profession or occupation (some of these rights are subject to security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order, decency or morality).
  • Right against exploitation, prohibiting all forms of forced labour, child labour and traffic in human beings.
  • Right to freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion.
  • Right of any section of citizens to conserve their culture, language or script, and right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice; and Right to constitutional remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

Fundamental Duties

  • To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem,
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom,
  • To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India,
  • To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so,
  • To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women,
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture,
  • To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures,
  • To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform,
  • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence,
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement, and
  • To provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years (added by the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002).